Our understanding of human physiology and disease susceptibility is dramatically changing. We now recognize that our bodies integrate the biology of our human cells and genome with the trillions of bacteria that live within and on us. In fact, a significant component of disease is derived from these microbial communities. Defining the processes and events responding to our microbiota offers new insights into disease processes, defines new relationships governing the natural history of human disease, and offers new approaches to treat and prevent disease. The goal of the Center for Microbiome and Human Health at the Cleveland Clinic is to understand mechanisms by which the human microbiome impacts human health and disease, and to become the recognized world leader in the development of microbiome-targeted therapeutics.